The Reversibility Principle in Sports Training
The Reversibility Principle dictates that athletes lose the beneficial effects of training when they stop working out. Conversely, it also means that detraining effects can be reversed when athletes resume training. In short, If you don't use it, you lose it. (1)
While rest periods are necessary for
extended rest intervals reduce physical fitness. The physiological effects of fitness training diminish over time, causing the body to revert back to its pretraining condition.
The length of the detraining period and the training status of the athlete dictate how much performance is lost.
Detraining occurs within a relatively short time period after an athlete ceases to train. Performance reductions may occur in as little as two weeks or sooner.
In trained athletes, research indicates that detraining may result in greater losses in muscular power than strength. Strength losses are due to first to neural mechanisms, and next due to atrophy of muscles.
What is interesting is that strength levels after detraining are rarely lower than pre training levels, so training has a residual effect even when it is discontinued. But when the athlete returns to training, the rate of strength acquisition is high.
The Reversibility Principle Does Not Apply to Retaining Skills
Motor learning research reveals that sport skills are retained for much longer periods of time than physiological effects of training. A skill once learned is never forgotten, especially if well learned.
Coordination appears to store in long-term motor memory and remains nearly perfect for decades, particularly for continuous skills (e.g., cycling, swimming). (Also see
Over time, strength, endurance, and flexibility are lost, but athletes remember how to execute sport skills and strategies. (3)
The challenge often concerns regaining precise timing after detraining. In other words, the motor skill programs remain intact but the body's physical tools for executing the programs become rusty and must be resharpened.
Coaching Tips on Applying the Reversibility Principle
1. Conditioning. After long rest intervals, begin a conditioning program to rebuild sport fitness. After several weeks of detraining due to illness or for other reasons, athletes may need to increase training volume and reduce intensity to regain general conditioning.
2. Active Rests. During the off season, active participation in other sports or activities minimizes detraining effects and can even facilitate skill learning. Avoid long rest periods with complete inactivity.
3. Retraining. Increase exercise gradually and progressively after long periods of inactivity. Athletes should avoid performing intense work without first reconditioning. (See the
Overload Principle )
4. Avoid Maximum Attempts. Athletes should not attempt to lift single maximum weight loads early in conditioning. They will remember how to properly execute the lifts, but may sustain an injury if they overestimate how much weight they can lift compared to their peak performance.
5. Flexibility. Emphasize stretching exercises to regain joint flexibility. This is particularly important for older adults who participate in senior sports.
Other Sports Training Principles include:
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